Curated Model: Dynamics of regulatory and signaling pathways in the cell.


Tyson, J. J., Chen, K. C., & Novak, B. (2003).
Sniffers, buzzers, toggles and blinkers: dynamics of regulatory and signaling pathways in the cell.
Current opinion in cell biology, 15(2), 221-231.

PMID: 12648679  DOI: 10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00017-6


The physiological responses of cells to external and internal stimuli are governed by genes and proteins interacting in complex networks whose dynamical properties are impossible to understand by intuitive reasoning alone. Recent advances by theoretical biologists have demonstrated that molecular regulatory networks can be accurately modeled in mathematical terms. These models shed light on the design principles of biological control systems and make predictions that have been verified experimentally.


  1. Protein synthesis & degradation
  2. Protein phosphorylation
  3. Perfectly adapted signal-response


John Albanese, Michael Blinov